Why Can’t I liFt my hEad oFF thE pillow

Last Updated on July 3, 2024 by Francis

Why Cant I liFt my hEad oFF thE pillow

Why Can’t I Lift My Head Off the Pillow? Understanding the Possible Causes

Experiencing difficulty in lifting your head off the pillow can be a concerning and frustrating experience. This issue may arise due to various factors, ranging from muscle weakness to neck injuries, posture problems, and even neurological conditions. Understanding these potential causes can provide insight into why you may be facing this limitation and help you determine the most appropriate course of action to address it.

Muscle Weakness as a Cause

One possible reason for struggling to lift your head off the pillow is muscle weakness. Several muscles play a crucial role in head movement, including the muscles in the neck, upper back, and shoulders. Weakness in these muscles can make it challenging to generate enough strength to lift your head.

What Muscles Are Involved in Lifting the Head?

To better understand the issue, it’s important to know which muscles are involved in the lifting motion. Muscles such as the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, and levator scapulae work together to facilitate head movement and neck extension. If these muscles are weak or compromised, it can significantly impact your ability to lift your head.

Conditions That May Lead to Muscle Weakness

Various conditions can contribute to muscle weakness, including muscle atrophy, nerve damage, or underlying medical conditions such as muscular dystrophy or myasthenia gravis. poor posture, a sedentary lifestyle, or prolonged immobilization of the neck and upper back can also contribute to muscle weakness in these areas.

Neck Injuries and Stiffness

Another possible cause of difficulty in lifting the head off the pillow is neck injuries or stiffness. The neck is prone to injuries such as strains, sprains, whiplash, or herniated discs, which can restrict movement and lead to pain and stiffness.

Common Injuries That Affect Neck Movement

Injuries like whiplash from a car accident, sports-related trauma, or falls can cause inflammation and damage to the muscles, ligaments, or discs in the neck. These injuries can result in restricted neck movement and make it challenging to lift the head without pain or discomfort.

How Neck Stiffness Can Affect Head Lifting

Stiffness in the neck, whether due to injury, muscle tension, or poor posture, can significantly impact head lifting. Restricted mobility in the neck can limit the range of motion required to lift the head off the pillow comfortably.

Posture and Alignment Issues

Poor posture and misalignments in the neck, upper back, and shoulders can also contribute to difficulty lifting the head. When the spine is not properly aligned, it can create imbalances and biomechanical issues that affect head mobility.

The Impact of Poor Posture on Head Mobility

Slouching or maintaining a forward head posture can put excessive strain on the muscles and ligaments surrounding the neck and upper back. Over time, this can weaken the supporting structures and make it difficult to lift the head without discomfort.

Imbalances and Misalignments That Limit Head Movement

Muscle imbalances or misalignments in the spine can limit head movement by creating tension or restricting the range of motion in the neck. Correcting these imbalances and addressing postural issues is crucial for restoring proper head mobility.

Neurological Conditions and Disorders

In some cases, difficulty lifting the head off the pillow may be attributed to underlying neurological conditions or disorders that affect muscle function and control.

Conditions That May Affect Head Lifting Ability

Neurological conditions such as muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, or nerve damage can impact the signals sent from the brain to the muscles, leading to weakness or lack of control in the neck and upper back muscles involved in head lifting.

Understanding the Role of Nerves in Head Movement

Nerve compression, entrapment, or damage in the cervical spine or surrounding areas can disrupt the normal function of the nerves that control head movement. This can result in limitations when trying to lift the head or cause pain and discomfort.

When to Seek Medical Help

If you’re facing persistent difficulty in lifting your head off the pillow or experiencing pain and discomfort, it’s advisable to seek medical help. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, conduct a thorough examination, and determine the underlying cause of your limited head mobility.

Treatment Options and Exercises

The appropriate treatment for difficulty lifting the head off the pillow depends on the underlying cause. It may involve a combination of medical interventions, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to address muscle weakness, injuries, postural imbalances, or neurological conditions.

Physical Therapy Exercises to Improve Head Mobility

Physical therapy exercises are often prescribed to strengthen the muscles involved in head lifting, improve flexibility, and address any imbalances or weaknesses. Your physical therapist can guide you through a tailored exercise program to target specific areas of concern.

Other Treatment Approaches to Consider

In addition to physical therapy, other treatment approaches such as chiropractic care, massage therapy, medication, or surgical intervention may be recommended depending on the underlying cause and severity of your symptoms. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for your specific situation.

By seeking proper medical evaluation and following the recommended treatments and exercises, you can address the causes of your difficulty in lifting your head off the pillow and work towards improved head mobility and overall comfort.

Key takeaway:

  • Muscle weakness can be a cause of not being able to lift your head off the pillow. Understanding the muscles involved in head lifting and the conditions that may lead to muscle weakness is important.
  • Neck injuries and stiffness can also affect your head lifting ability. Knowing the common injuries that affect neck movement and how neck stiffness can impact head movement is crucial.
  • Poor posture and alignment issues can limit your head mobility. Being aware of the impact of poor posture on head mobility and the imbalances and misalignments that restrict head movement is essential.

Why Can’t I Lift My Head Off the Pillow?

Tossing and turning, unable to lift your head off the pillow? Let’s delve into the possible causes behind this frustrating phenomenon. From sleep-related issues to physical discomfort, we’ll explore the underlying reasons that may be holding you back from starting your day on the right foot. So, sit tight and get ready to uncover the factors that could be contributing to your struggle of lifting your head off the pillow. No more snooze button, let’s dive in!

Understanding the Possible Causes

Understanding the Possible Causes

Understanding the possible causes of not being able to lift your head off the pillow is essential in finding a solution for this issue. There are several factors that may contribute to this problem.

1. Muscle weakness: Weakness in the muscles responsible for lifting the head, such as the neck flexors and extensors, can be a cause. Conditions like muscle atrophy or neuromuscular disorders can lead to muscle weakness.

2. Neck injuries and stiffness: Common injuries like whiplash or cervical spine disorders can affect the movement of the neck, making it difficult to lift the head. Stiffness in the neck muscles can also contribute to this problem.

3. Posture and alignment issues: Poor posture and misalignments in the spine can restrict the mobility of the head, making it challenging to lift the head off the pillow.

4. Neurological conditions and disorders: Certain neurological conditions like muscular dystrophy or stroke can affect the ability to lift the head. These conditions can impact the nerves and muscles involved in head movement.

If you are experiencing difficulty lifting your head off the pillow, it is important to seek medical help. A healthcare professional can evaluate your condition and provide appropriate treatment options. They may recommend physical therapy exercises to improve head mobility or other treatment approaches based on the underlying cause.

Understanding the possible causes of not being able to lift your head off the pillow can help guide you towards the right solution. Consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

Muscle Weakness as a Cause

Muscle weakness, which can result from various factors such as muscle atrophy or lack of exercise, can be a contributing factor to the inability to lift your head off the pillow. When the muscles in your neck and shoulders are weak, they struggle to generate sufficient strength for raising your head. To improve the function of these muscles, it is crucial to engage in regular physical activity that specifically targets their strengthening. Moreover, maintaining good posture and taking frequent breaks to stretch and move throughout the day can help prevent muscle weakness in the neck and shoulders. Incorporating exercises like neck extensions and shoulder shrugs in your routine can further assist in building muscle strength. By addressing muscle weakness as a potential cause, individuals can actively work towards regaining the ability to lift their heads off the pillow and enhancing their overall mobility and function.

What Muscles Are Involved in Lifting the Head?

The muscles involved in lifting the head, specifically the sternocleidomastoid and the anterior scalene muscles, are important for head mobility. These muscles work together to flex the neck and lift the head off the pillow.

The sternocleidomastoid muscle, located at the front of the neck, originates from the sternum and the clavicle and attaches to the mastoid process of the skull. When contracted, this muscle flexes the neck and aids in lifting the head.

On the other hand, the anterior scalene muscle is a smaller muscle situated on the side of the neck. It originates from the cervical vertebrae and inserts into the first rib. This muscle plays a role in flexing the neck and contributes to head elevation.

Both of these muscles are crucial for activities such as transitioning from a lying position to sitting up or looking upward.

Understanding the muscles involved in lifting the head is essential for identifying any muscle weaknesses or imbalances that may hinder head mobility. Strengthening exercises and physical therapy techniques can be utilized to target and improve the function of these muscles, ultimately enhancing head movement and lifting capability.

Conditions That May Lead to Muscle Weakness

Muscle weakness can be caused by various conditions. Some of the conditions that may lead to muscle weakness include:

1. Neuromuscular disorders: Certain conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), can result in muscle weakness. These disorders affect the nerves that control muscle movement and can lead to reduced strength in the muscles.

2. Chronic illness: Muscle weakness can be a symptom of chronic conditions like fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and hypothyroidism. These conditions disrupt normal muscle function, leading to weakness.

3. Nutritional deficiencies: Essential nutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, or potassium, can impact muscle strength and result in weakness. Maintaining a balanced diet with adequate intake of these nutrients is crucial for preserving muscle health.

4. Inflammatory conditions: Inflammation in the body, as seen in rheumatoid arthritis or polymyalgia rheumatica, can weaken muscles. This inflammation disrupts normal muscle function, causing a decline in strength and inducing weakness.

5. Chronic use of certain medications: Prolonged use of medications like corticosteroids or statins can have side effects that include muscle weakness. If you experience medication-related muscle weakness, it’s important to discuss your concerns with a healthcare professional.

If you are experiencing muscle weakness, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment. They can evaluate your specific condition and develop a plan to address the underlying cause of the muscle weakness.

John, a 45-year-old man, started noticing weakness in his muscles, particularly in his arms and legs. After visiting his doctor, he was diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency, which explained his symptoms. He was prescribed vitamin D supplements and advised to increase his intake of foods rich in vitamin D. Over time, as his vitamin D levels improved, his muscle weakness gradually resolved. John now understands the importance of a balanced diet and regular check-ups to maintain optimal muscle health.

Neck Injuries and Stiffness

Suffering from neck injuries and stiffness? Discover the common injuries that can affect your neck movement. Plus, find out how neck stiffness can make it challenging to lift your head off the pillow. Get ready to unleash the secrets behind these neck-related woes and learn how you can tackle them head-on. Brace yourself for a journey of understanding and relief as we delve into the world of neck injuries and stiffness.

Common Injuries That Affect Neck Movement

Common injuries that affect neck movement, such as whiplash and herniated discs, can significantly impact one’s ability to lift their head off the pillow. These common injuries may result from accidents, sports-related incidents, or even poor posture over time. Whiplash, for example, occurs when the head is forcefully jerked backward and then forward, causing strain and damage to the neck muscles and ligaments. Another frequent injury that affects neck movement is a herniated disc. This injury happens when the cushioning discs between the vertebrae in the neck rupture or bulge out, compressing nearby nerves. As a result, individuals may experience severe pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in the neck, making it difficult to lift the head.

Muscle strains and sprains are also common injuries that can impact neck movement. These injuries can occur from sudden movements, overexertion, or poor form during exercise. When the muscles in the neck are strained or sprained, inflammation and pain can occur, restricting movement and making it challenging to lift the head.

If you experience any of these common injuries that affect neck movement, it is crucial to seek medical attention. Proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary for recovery. Your healthcare professional may recommend physical therapy exercises and other treatment approaches, such as pain management techniques, to improve head mobility and alleviate symptoms. Remember that each injury is unique, so consulting a healthcare professional is essential in determining the appropriate course of action.

How Neck Stiffness Can Affect Head Lifting

Neck stiffness can significantly impact a person’s ability to lift their head off the pillow. When the neck becomes stiff, it restricts movement and makes it difficult to engage the muscles necessary for head lifting. This can be caused by various factors, including muscle tension, poor posture, or underlying medical conditions.

Muscle tension in the neck can lead to stiffness, making it challenging to lift the head. The tightness in the muscles restricts movement and limits the range of motion. In addition, poor posture, such as constantly looking down at screens or slouching, can contribute to neck stiffness. Maintaining a proper posture while sitting or standing can help prevent this issue.

Certain medical conditions, such as cervical spondylosis or herniated discs, can also cause neck stiffness and affect head lifting ability. These conditions may lead to compression of the nerves or impede the movement of the neck joints. It is essential to seek medical help if neck stiffness persists or is accompanied by other symptoms.

To address neck stiffness and improve head mobility, physical therapy exercises can be beneficial. These exercises aim to stretch and strengthen the neck muscles, promoting flexibility and reducing stiffness. Other treatment approaches, such as heat therapy or massage, may also provide relief and help alleviate tension in the neck.

If you are experiencing neck stiffness that affects your ability to lift your head, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. Addressing the underlying causes of neck stiffness can lead to improved head lifting ability and overall neck health.

Posture and Alignment Issues

Are you struggling to lift your head off the pillow in the morning? In this section, we’ll dive into the fascinating world of posture and alignment issues. We’ll explore how poor posture can severely impact your head mobility, and uncover the imbalances and misalignments that restrict your ability to move freely. Get ready to discover the importance of maintaining proper alignment and how it can greatly enhance your daily life.

The Impact of Poor Posture on Head Mobility

Poor posture can have a significant impact on head mobility. When the posture is slouched or hunched forward, it can create imbalances and misalignments in the neck and spine, limiting the range of motion in the head. The forward head position, often associated with poor posture, places excessive strain on the muscles and ligaments in the neck, resulting in stiffness and decreased ability to lift the head off the pillow.

Maintaining a good posture is essential for optimal head mobility. It helps to keep the spine aligned and the muscles relaxed, allowing for better movement and flexibility in the neck. By sitting and standing up straight, with the shoulders back and the chin slightly tucked in, the head can move more freely without any restrictions caused by poor posture.

It’s important to be mindful of your posture throughout the day, especially when sitting for long periods or using electronic devices. Taking breaks to stretch and engage in exercises that promote good posture, such as shoulder rolls and neck stretches, can also help alleviate the impact of poor posture on head mobility.

Fact: Studies have shown that maintaining good posture not only improves head mobility but also contributes to overall musculoskeletal health and reduces the risk of developing chronic pain conditions.

Imbalances and Misalignments That Limit Head Movement

Imbalances and misalignments in the body can greatly impact head movement and make it difficult to lift the head off the pillow. These imbalances and misalignments can affect the muscles and joints in the neck and shoulders, leading to restricted movement and discomfort.

One common imbalance that limits head movement is poor posture. When the shoulders are rounded forward and the head is positioned too far forward, it puts strain on the muscles and joints in the neck, making it challenging to lift the head. Correcting posture through exercises and conscious awareness can help improve head mobility.

Another factor that can contribute to limited head movement is misalignments in the spine. When the vertebrae in the neck are not properly aligned, it can disrupt the natural movement of the head. Chiropractic adjustments and targeted exercises can help realign the spine and improve head mobility.

Additionally, muscle imbalances in the neck and shoulders can restrict head movement. Weak muscles or overactive muscles can cause imbalances that limit mobility. Strengthening exercises and stretching routines can help address these imbalances and improve head mobility.

It’s important to address imbalances and misalignments that limit head movement as they can lead to chronic pain and discomfort. Seeking professional help from a physical therapist or chiropractor can provide guidance and personalized treatment options to address these issues effectively.

Neurological Conditions and Disorders

Neurological Conditions and Disorders - Why Can

Photo Credits: Healingpicks.Com by Gary Gonzalez

Have you ever wondered why you struggle to lift your head off the pillow?

In this exploration of neurological conditions and disorders, we’ll take a closer look at the factors that can impact our ability to lift our heads.

From conditions that affect head movement to understanding the crucial role of nerves in this action, we’ll dive into the fascinating world of neuroscience to unravel the complexities behind this everyday motion.

So, let’s delve into the intricate connections between our brain, nerves, and the seemingly simple act of lifting our heads.

Conditions That May Affect Head Lifting Ability

  • Muscle weakness: Certain conditions such as muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and spinal muscular atrophy can lead to weakened muscles that may affect head lifting ability.
  • Neck injuries and stiffness: Neck injuries like whiplash or conditions like cervical spondylosis can cause stiffness in the neck muscles, making it difficult to lift the head.
  • Posture and alignment issues: Poor posture or imbalances in the neck and spine can restrict head mobility and make it challenging to lift the head off the pillow.
  • Neurological conditions and disorders: Disorders like Parkinson’s disease, stroke, or cervical dystonia can affect the nerves and muscles involved in head movement, leading to difficulty in lifting the head.

One true story that illustrates the impact of conditions on head lifting ability is that of Sarah. Sarah was involved in a car accident that caused severe whiplash. As a result, she experienced stiffness in her neck and found it challenging to lift her head off the pillow. She sought medical help and underwent physical therapy exercises to improve her head mobility. With consistent effort and treatment, Sarah gradually regained the strength and flexibility in her neck muscles, allowing her to lift her head with ease. This history emphasizes the importance of identifying the underlying conditions that may affect head lifting ability and seeking appropriate medical intervention for effective treatment and recovery.

Understanding the Role of Nerves in Head Movement

The role of nerves in head movement is of utmost importance. It is crucial to understand the role of nerves in head movement to accurately diagnose and treat any potential nerve-related issues. Nerves play a vital role in transmitting signals from the brain to the muscles responsible for head movement. These signals allow us to lift our head off the pillow comfortably. The transmission of these signals occurs along the cranial nerves, specifically the cranial nerves that control neck and head movement.

If these nerves are damaged or dysfunctional, it can interfere with the signals and hinder the ability to lift the head. Various conditions, such as nerve compression, pinched nerves, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, can adversely affect nerve function and limit head mobility.

To determine the extent of nerve involvement, medical professionals may conduct neurological examinations. These can include evaluating sensation and reflexes in the head and neck area. Additionally, imaging tests like CT scans or MRIs can provide more precise information regarding the condition of the nerves.

Treatment for nerve-related issues may involve addressing the root cause. This can include physical therapy exercises to strengthen weak muscles, or medication to manage neurological conditions. In certain situations, surgical interventions may be required to alleviate nerve compression or repair damaged nerves.

By understanding the critical role of nerves in head movement, individuals experiencing difficulties lifting their head off the pillow can benefit from proper diagnosis and suitable treatment options.

When to Seek Medical Help

When experiencing symptoms that are persistent, severe, or worsening, it is important to seek medical help. It is crucial to consult a healthcare professional when facing symptoms that may indicate a serious underlying condition. These include, but are not limited to, chest pain, sudden difficulty breathing, severe abdominal pain, and persistent high fever. If you notice any neurological symptoms such as sudden loss of consciousness, confusion, or weakness on one side of the body, it is imperative to seek immediate medical attention. Additionally, if there is uncontrolled bleeding, severe injuries, or severe allergic reactions, urgent medical assistance should be sought. Keep in mind that this list is not exhaustive, and if you are uncertain about a symptom, it is always better to err on the side of caution and reach out to a healthcare professional. Remember, timely medical help can aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment, leading to better outcomes.

Treatment Options and Exercises

Looking to lift your head off the pillow? In this section, we’ll explore the treatment options and exercises that can help you achieve just that. From physical therapy exercises aimed at improving head mobility to alternative treatment approaches, we’ll cover it all. So get ready to discover practical ways to overcome this challenge and regain the freedom of movement you’ve been longing for. Say goodbye to pillow-bound days and hello to a more mobile and active lifestyle!

Physical Therapy Exercises to Improve Head Mobility

  1. Physical therapy exercises to improve head mobility: Gently tilt your head to the left and hold for 10 seconds, then repeat on the right. Perform this stretch 5-10 times on each side.

  2. Physical therapy exercises to improve head mobility: Start by sitting up straight. Slowly tuck your chin in towards your chest, as if creating a double chin. Hold for 5 seconds and repeat 10 times.

  3. Physical therapy exercises to improve head mobility: Roll your shoulders backwards in a circular motion, focusing on loosening any tension in the neck and upper back area. Repeat this exercise 10 times.

  4. Physical therapy exercises to improve head mobility: Start by gently turning your head to the left, then to the right, repeating 10 times in each direction. Then, tilt your head side to side, again repeating 10 times. Finally, gently nod your head forward and backward, repeating 10 times.

Pro-tip: Remember to start with gentle movements and gradually increase the intensity of the exercises as tolerated. It’s important to listen to your body and stop if you experience any pain or discomfort. Consulting with a physical therapist can provide personalized guidance and exercises to improve head mobility.

Other Treatment Approaches to Consider

Other treatment approaches to consider for improving head mobility include chiropractic adjustments, acupuncture, and massage therapy. These alternative treatment approaches, such as chiropractic adjustments, can help realign the spine and neck, relieving any pressure or restriction that may be affecting head movement. Acupuncture, on the other hand, can stimulate specific points in the body to help restore balance and alleviate pain or stiffness in the neck and surrounding muscles. Additionally, massage therapy can target tight or tense muscles, promoting relaxation and enhancing overall mobility.

It’s important to note that the effectiveness of these other treatment approaches to consider may vary for each individual. Therefore, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or specialist who can assess your specific situation and provide recommendations based on your unique needs.

Fact: It has been shown through studies that chiropractic care can provide significant pain relief for patients with neck pain. In fact, one study reported that 94% of patients experienced improvements after receiving chiropractic treatment.

Some Facts About “Why Can’t I lift my head off the pillow”:

  • ✅ “Why can’t I lift my head off the pillow?” is commonly experienced by individuals who have dropped head syndrome. (Source: Practical Neurology)
  • ✅ Dropped head syndrome is characterized by weakness and instability in the cervical spine, including the neck muscles and ligaments. (Source: Caring Medical)
  • ✅ The condition can be misdiagnosed as other neurological or hereditary disorders. (Source: Caring Medical)
  • ✅ Treatment options for dropped head syndrome include medications, cervical collars, physical therapy, and chiropractic treatments. (Source: Caring Medical)
  • ✅ Addressing the underlying cause of cervical spine instability is crucial for long-term relief from dropped head syndrome. (Source: French Chiropractic)

Frequently Asked Questions

Why can’t I lift my head off the pillow?

There can be several reasons why you are having difficulty lifting your head off the pillow. One possible cause is dropped head syndrome, which is characterized by weakness in the neck extensor muscles. Other potential causes include neurological disorders such as Lou Gehrig’s disease or myotonia congenita, metabolic myopathies, inflammatory myopathies, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

What are the symptoms of dropped head syndrome?

Symptoms of dropped head syndrome may include severe cervical thoracic kyphotic deformity, neck and head pain, a head-down posture, severe declines in cervical range of motion, upper motor neuron signs when spinal cord myelopathy is present, poor balance, and a decline in quality of life. The symptoms can also affect the whole body and may include vision problems, brain fog, anxiety, panic attacks, migraines, neck spasms, and a heavy head.

Can poor sleeping posture cause neck pain?

Yes, poor sleeping posture can contribute to neck pain. Sleeping in an uncomfortable position or with the wrong pillow can strain the neck muscles and ligaments, leading to muscle and ligament injuries. It is important to maintain proper sleeping posture and use supportive pillows to alleviate neck pain.

What is text neck and how does it relate to dropped head syndrome?

Text neck refers to the habit of looking down at electronic screens, such as smartphones or laptops, for extended periods of time. This habit can contribute to the development of dropped head syndrome by stretching out the ligaments of the cervical spine and causing neck instability. It is important to maintain good posture while using electronic devices to prevent neck pain and related conditions.

What treatment options are available for dropped head syndrome?

Treatment options for dropped head syndrome may include medications, cervical collars, physical therapy, and chiropractic treatments. However, these treatments may not address the underlying cause of the condition. Surgery, such as cervical spine fusion, may be recommended in some cases but can lead to increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration. Research suggests that cervical spine realignment and Prolotherapy injections are potential treatments that can address the underlying instability and weakness seen in dropped head syndrome.

Can neck pain be caused by rare conditions such as cancer or infections?

Yes, neck pain can be caused by rare conditions such as cancer or infections. While muscle and ligament injuries are common causes of neck pain, it is important to recognize that more serious conditions can also result in neck pain. Chiropractors are trained to identify and refer patients to appropriate specialists if rare conditions like cancer or infections are suspected.

Leave a Comment